合约

Solidity中合约有点类似面向对象语言中的类。合约中有用于数据持久化的状态变量(state variables),和可以操作他们的函数。调用另一个合约实例的函数时,会执行一个EVM函数调用,这个操作会切换执行时的上下文,这样,前一个合约的状态变量(state variables)就不能访问了。

创建合约

合约可以通过Solidity,或不通过Solidity创建。当合约创建时,一个和合约同名的函数(构造器函数)会调用一次,用于初始化。

构造器函数是可选的。仅能有一个构造器,所以不支持重载。

如果不通过Solidity,我们可以通过web3.js,使用JavaScript的API来完成合约创建:

// Need to specify some source including contract name for the data param below
var source = "contract CONTRACT_NAME { function CONTRACT_NAME(unit a, uint b) {} }";

// The json abi array generated by the compiler
var abiArray = [
    {
        "inputs":[
            {"name":"x","type":"uint256"},
            {"name":"y","type":"uint256"}
        ],
        "type":"constructor"
    },
    {
        "constant":true,
        "inputs":[],
        "name":"x",
        "outputs":[{"name":"","type":"bytes32"}],
        "type":"function"
    }
];

var MyContract_ = web3.eth.contract(source);
MyContract = web3.eth.contract(MyContract_.CONTRACT_NAME.info.abiDefinition);
// deploy new contract
var contractInstance = MyContract.new(
    10,
    11,
    {from: myAccount, gas: 1000000}
);

具体内部实现里,构造器的参数是紧跟在合约代码的后面,但如果你使用web3.js,可以不用关心这样的细节。

如果一个合约要创建另一个合约,它必须要知道源码。这意味着循环创建依赖是不可能的。

pragma solidity ^0.4.0;

contract OwnedToken {
    // TokenCreator is a contract type that is defined below.
    // It is fine to reference it as long as it is not used
    // to create a new contract.
    TokenCreator creator;
    address owner;
    bytes32 name;

    // This is the constructor which registers the
    // creator and the assigned name.
    function OwnedToken(bytes32 _name) {
        // State variables are accessed via their name
        // and not via e.g. this.owner. This also applies
        // to functions and especially in the constructors,
        // you can only call them like that ("internall"),
        // because the contract itself does not exist yet.
        owner = msg.sender;
        // We do an explicit type conversion from `address`
        // to `TokenCreator` and assume that the type of
        // the calling contract is TokenCreator, there is
        // no real way to check that.
        creator = TokenCreator(msg.sender);
        name = _name;
    }

    function changeName(bytes32 newName) {
        // Only the creator can alter the name --
        // the comparison is possible since contracts
        // are implicitly convertible to addresses.
        if (msg.sender == address(creator))
            name = newName;
    }

    function transfer(address newOwner) {
        // Only the current owner can transfer the token.
        if (msg.sender != owner) return;
        // We also want to ask the creator if the transfer
        // is fine. Note that this calls a function of the
        // contract defined below. If the call fails (e.g.
        // due to out-of-gas), the execution here stops
        // immediately.
        if (creator.isTokenTransferOK(owner, newOwner))
            owner = newOwner;
    }
}

contract TokenCreator {
    function createToken(bytes32 name)
       returns (OwnedToken tokenAddress)
    {
        // Create a new Token contract and return its address.
        // From the JavaScript side, the return type is simply
        // "address", as this is the closest type available in
        // the ABI.
        return new OwnedToken(name);
    }

    function changeName(OwnedToken tokenAddress, bytes32 name) {
        // Again, the external type of "tokenAddress" is
        // simply "address".
        tokenAddress.changeName(name);
    }

    function isTokenTransferOK(
        address currentOwner,
        address newOwner
    ) returns (bool ok) {
        // Check some arbitrary condition.
        address tokenAddress = msg.sender;
        return (keccak256(newOwner) & 0xff) == (bytes20(tokenAddress) & 0xff);
    }
}

感谢您的支持

zan-code

处于某些特定的环境下,可以看到评论框,欢迎留言交流^_^。